The 2023 harvest season has arrived. Henan is the province with the largest wheat planting area in China, and its annual wheat production accounts for a quarter of the country. Since May 25, Henan has encountered "bad field rain" weather, which coincides with the mature harvesting period of wheat. Continuous rainy weather affects wheat grain filling and increases mildew base. Germination of wheat ears even occurs, reducing grain bulk density and thousand-grain weight, which adversely affects yield and quality.
Moldy wheat is easily contaminated by fungi that produce vomitoxin. If it accidentally enters the food chain, it will endanger human and animal health. At the same time, the production of malted malt will also greatly increase the risk of enrichment of vomitoxin metabolites. This is also a problem that we must pay attention to.
Let's talk about vomitoxin.
Vomitoxin, also known as deoxynivalenol (DON), is named after the vomiting in pigs. It is a secondary metabolite produced by fungi infecting grains such as wheat. This kind of toxin has carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic effects. If the intake is too large, it will pose a hazard to human and animal health, and can be fatal in severe cases. In China, the current standard stipulates that the content of DON in agricultural products and foods such as wheat and its products shall not exceed 1 mg/kg.
Prolonged droughts, unusually intense rainy seasons and floods are just some examples of extreme weather conditions that damage crops around the world. Many mycotoxin-producing molds, in particular, can thrive in such extreme conditions. DON-producing strains are suitable for growing in humid conditions, so the pollution of DON in wheat is relatively serious in rainy years. If the wheat cannot be dried in time after harvest and the moisture in the grain is too high, the mold will continue to grow, which will lead to a continuous increase in the content of vomitoxin and its derivatives (hidden toxin) in the wheat.
Distribution of DON in Wheat
DON is mainly distributed in the cortex of wheat grains, and 50-60% of the total toxin can be transferred to the bran after the initial processing of wheat such as milling. As a result, the DON content of processed wheat flour is significantly lower than that of unprocessed wheat kernels.
Storage of wheat and wheat flour (flour)
The harvested wheat should be stored in a cool and ventilated environment as much as possible. When storing wheat flour (flour), pay attention to moisture-proof, well-ventilated, and do not pile up a lot at home; especially in summer when there is a lot of rain, high temperature, and high humidity. Wheat flour (flour) is easy to absorb moisture and agglomerate in the cloth bag, and then be polluted.
How to prevent moldy wheat and wheat flour from entering the food chain?
DON is mainly distributed in the cortex of wheat grains, and 50-60% of the total toxin can be transferred to the bran after the initial processing of wheat such as milling. As a result, processed wheat flour (flour) contains substantially less DON than unprocessed wheat grain.
DON Testing Products
Deoxynivalenol Immunoaffinity Column
220 MFC Nivalenol, Deoxynivalenol
Deoxynivalenol (100 µg/mL) in Methanol
100 µg/mL 3--keto-4-Deoxynivalenol)in Acetonitrile
3-Acetyl Deoxynivalenol (100 µg/mL) in Acetonitrile
15-Acetyl Deoxynivalenol (100 µg/mL) in Acetonitrile
Deoxynivalenol-3-Glucoside(3-G-DON) (50 µg/mL) in Acetonitrile
Deoxynivalenol-15-Glucoside(15-G-DON) (20 µg/mL) in Acetonitrile
Deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (50 µg/mL) in Acetonitrile
Diacetoxyscirpenol (100 µg/mL) in Acetonitrile
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